Ask Stew: Building Strength and Maintaining PST/Cardio Scores

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Navy PST
Retired U.S. Navy Lt. Cmdr. Joe Fuller, SEAL, San Diego mentor for future Sailors participating in the Physical Standards Test (PST) at Admiral Prout Field, Naval Base San Diego, June 24, 2014, discusses how important the 1.5 mile run of the PST is to hopeful special warfare operators. The PST is a weekly performance test special warfare operator hopefuls must pass before receiving a contract for the rate they want. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Eric Coffer/Released)

When preparing to get to and through military training at any level, you first have to pass a fitness test to enter the military, such as the Navy's Physical Screening Test, or PST. For advancement, you have to pass initial or advanced-level training (boot camp, basic or spec ops selection).

Both phases of tactical fitness require specific training to address the strengths and weaknesses of an individual candidate and to prepare for testing requirements and the future challenges of training.

Here is a block periodization system our group is trying out over a 12-week period. We've also got another option provided by a Military.com Fitness reader.

4-2 Block Strength -- PST Periodization Cycle is a 4-week strength-based program with minimum cardio and 2 weeks of PST-specific training such as the Classic PST week of training.This is done for a total of 12 to 18 weeks, depending on the individual.

The minimum cardio during 4-week strength training includes 1.5-mile timed runs, 500-meter swims, and 4-mile timed runs spread through the week for a total of 10 to 12 miles of running and 1 to 2 miles of swimming each week.

Stew, I just looked at your 4-2 strength/PST cycle. I agree many people need time off after 4 to 6 weeks of lifting, and this idea of periodization strength with cardio and PST driven work looks solid to me. The cycle as it is set up now allows you to get 2 full rotations through a 12-week phase (6 weeks twice).

One other possible route is turning this into a 4-week cycle to be done 3 times over the 12-week phase. Since this is a strength-training phase, if you do 3 weeks of strength and 1 week of PST focus for 3 cycles, you now get 9 weeks of strength training in a 12-week cycle vs. 8 weeks. You also get half of the PST cycles, so it would depend on the strengths and weaknesses of the individual. What do you think of a 3-1 option as opposed to the 4-2 option? Thanks -- Dan.

Dan, you make a great point, and I love the idea, especially since we are in a strength cycle and we're using the PST focus week partially as recovery from strength. Of course, we're also supporting our folks who need to maintain competitive PST scores as they prepare to join the Navy.

Here is an update of our first 6-week cycle of 4-2 block periodization:

We did the 4-2 block and are starting over again this week. We may do the 3-1 block this round; it will depend on how people are feeling as we approach week 3 again.

We did notice we needed more recovery during the 4 weeks vs the 2 weeks. There's a difference between a Day 3 Mobility Day that you felt like you needed versus one that you don't need but do anyway. Hunger was greater during the 4 weeks, as was the urge for a midday nap. Strength training requires more recovery time than moderate cardio and calisthenics, so that wasn't surprising.

During the 2-week PST, things went very well. We didn't experience any soreness, and we added more forms of cardio (run, ruck, bike, elliptical, swimming). We didn't do any long distances but kept everything fast-paced.

Strength scores went up in the 4 weeks of lifting and PST scores (pull-ups and push-ups) also went up during the 2 weeks when compared to the week before we started; 1.5-mile and 4-mile run times were also fast for our group members who are getting ready to ship to Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL and other spec ops units.

Swims have remained the same, but they're still fast at a yard-per-second or faster with fins and without fins. During the full 4-2 cycle, we are focused on technique as much as conditioning. Those who better mastered the technique over the 6 weeks were faster because of that -- not so much the additional conditioning.

Here is another reason why I like the 3-1 block periodization model: Since we're in a 12-week phase that's focused on strength development, I want my athletes to improve their strength as much as they can with proper recovery.

Strength will help across the board on the PST. Many people probably fall short because their strategy focuses on the technique for specific movements (CSS, running economy, push-up tempo, etc.) but doesn't build strength.

Doing 3 weeks of strength focus followed by 1 week of moderate calisthenics, cardio conditioning and skill drills is typically less fatiguing and therefore will not harm and may even benefit recovery. When it comes time to hammer the PST training during week 4, the athletes will be more comfortable and can take full advantage of that week.

See which one you like best for your specific needed:

4-2 Block Periodization ( Strength + PST) x 2 3-1 Block Periodization (Strength + PST) x 3
Weeks 1-4: Strength with moderate cardio/weighted calisthenics/skill work and drills for PST

Week 5-6: Deload Strength/Increase cardio and more PST focus

PST Test on week 0, week 6 and week 12

Weeks 1-3: Strength with moderate cardio/weighted calisthenics/skill work and drills for PST

Week 4: Deload Strength/Increase cardio and more PST focus

PST Test on week 0 and week 13

If you need to focus on more PST weeks but also build a better foundation of strength, go with the 4-2 block periodization model. If you need to focus more on strength and less on the PST numbers, go with the 3-1 block periodization model.

-- Stew Smith is a former Navy SEAL and fitness author certified as a Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) with the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Visit his Fitness eBook store if you're looking to start a workout program to create a healthy lifestyle. Send your fitness questions to stew@stewsmith.com.

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