A cool-down activity is a helpful part of a workout, but when it comes to their training day, most people ignore both a warm-up and a cool-down. Why are these activities so important and why should we add them to the end of a stressful workday?
You should never skip a cool-down after physical activity. Here's why.
According to sports injury specialist Sarah Pitts of MostMotion.com, cooling down does far more than just reduce body temperature and heart rate. Of course, a proper one will do that. But a cool-down also has central nervous system benefits that help the brain and body disconnect from a "fight or flight" response and move into the "rest and digest" state.
Life, Work and Even Exercise is Stress and Trauma
Depending on how hard you push yourself with sprints, heavy lifts, high repetition calisthenics and other activities listed as High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) workouts, you will engage the sympathetic nervous system and, therefore, definitely cannot skip the cooldown. The cooldown is simply meant to slow you down, ease the strain and effort and slowly take you back to a normal operating state. In fact, adding de-stressing moments throughout the day, after work or after physically, mentally or emotionally demanding events will help you pursue recovery by engaging the parasympathetic nervous system.
Here are Ten Recovery Tools We All Should Know that will show you skills, gear and habits to help you engage the parasympathetic nervous system more frequently. You should consider this a daily minimum standard like brushing your teeth, something you should do at least 1-2 times per day.
Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous Systems
Without getting overly scientific, think of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) as a "parachute" that slows you down before you crash into the ground. The PNS does this by releasing the hormone acetylcholine to reduce the heart rate and relax the body.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), on the other hand, is the speed up system. You can keep them straight by remembering that both sympathetic and speed start with S. The SNS is our natural performance enhancer and lifesaving system when in life-or-death situations. The stress hormones of cortisol and adrenaline are the "fight or flight" hormones that can be triggered by workouts, thoughts, danger, trauma, anxiety, caffeine and regular daily stressful situations.
We tend to stay in the stressed mode if we do not actively pursue recovery. The easiest way is to stretch and breathe. Yoga-based stretching and breathing practices are ideal. If you are not into yoga, my recommendation is to give it a try. You can also do 10-15 minutes of easy non-impact cardio activity coupled with deep breathing (box breathing, for instance) to start the process of re-engaging the PNS.
Here are the basic reasons why skipping cooldown fails to engage the PNS:
- Skipping a cool-down leaves the body in an agitated state that's hyper vigilant, alert and stressed
- Skipping a cooldown also leaves blood lactate levels high and leaves muscles in their most shortened state, resulting in tight muscles and joints.
- Skipping a cooldown does not unwind the muscles after their most repetitive period.
- Skipping a cooldown can cause digestion issues.
The Big Five of Physical Cooldown
- Breathe Deeply
- Mobility and Stretching
Recovery begins with the cool down. You cannot truly experience recovery without these five elements that all help you re-engage the PNS, the rest and digest part of the central nervous system.
Breathing -- Breathing is the quickest way we de-stress before a situation becomes overwhelming and starts to affect our mood and physiology. Deep and relaxing breaths will slow your daily stress and naturally ease anxiety. It is the number one natural stress reliever and will always produce stress-relieving hormones.
Try Box Breathing: 4 seconds inhale -- 4 seconds hold -- 4 seconds exhale -- 4 seconds hold. Repeat until you notice heart rate and other stress responses are back to normal.
Stretching and Mobility Work: Find time to do a few moments of easy cardio (biking, elliptical training, walking or swimming -- non-impact preferred) and do all the dynamic stretches you normally do prior to working out or running (butt kickers, leg swings, Frankenstein walks, high knees, side steps, etc.). Then add in static stretching to top off the workout.
Swimming is my go-to cool-down activity. It's perfect for practicing easy technique, treading water and doing dynamic stretches in chest deep water. Moving with full range of motion in the pool with all of your joints (especially the hips and legs) can help if you're getting burned out from lifting, high repetition calisthenics or high miles of running and rucking.
Nutrition and Recovery Supplementation: You also cannot recover with refueling. Eating well helps the body regain the vitamins, minerals and nutrients it just burned. Go with fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, healthy fats from fish and nuts and even supplemental protein powder if you are really burning the candle at both ends.
Hydration and Electrolytes: You cannot recover from a workout or sweaty day if you're dehydrated. Always drink water, but if you're sweating profusely, you should add salts like sodium, potassium and magnesium. Antioxidants like beta-carotene, Vitamin C and turmeric can also help the body recover. These can have anti-inflammatory effects as well and help you metabolize stress.
Sleep the #1 Recovery Tool: Without this critical piece, recovery cannot happen. Create sleeping rituals for yourself and focus on getting more and better sleep. See my rituals article for help.
Stress -- The Perfect Storm: Chronic stress will occur if you're continually overloading the Sympathetic Nervous System and the results are not pretty. This situation requires a different focus on the Parasympathetic side. The cooldown has to engage this system and it takes some effort.
If you don't pursue daily recovery, long-term chronic stress can result in high blood pressure, high cholesterol, increased body fat, decreased immunity, uncontrollable mood and attitude, decreased muscle tone and decreased sexual desire.
Stew Smith is a former Navy SEAL and fitness author certified as a Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) with the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Visit his Fitness eBook store if you're looking to starting a workout program to create a healthy lifestyle. Send your fitness questions to firstname.lastname@example.org.
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