U.S. Army Special Forces Soldiers are experts in unconventional warfare, and within the Special Forces community, individual Soldiers have particular skill sets depending on their military occupational specialties, or MOS. To qualify in these MOS, Soldiers must attend the Special Forces Qualiﬁ cation Course at Fort Bragg, N.C., which lasts up to two years depending on the MOS. After completing the SFQC,new Green Berets are assigned to an Operational Detachment-A, or ODA, at one of the ﬁ ve active-duty or two National Guard Special Forces Groups. A typical 12-man ODA consists of these Special Forces MOS:
DETACHMENT COMMANDER (18A): The detachment commander is a captain and has full command authority and responsibility for his detachment. Schooled in the art of unconventional warfare and in the primary missions ODAs may be required to accomplish, these ofﬁ cers also receive instruction on the capabilities of all the enlisted Special Forces MOS to enable them to properly employ their detachments’ assets in peacetime, conﬂ ict or war. The detachment commander may also advise an indigenous battalion-size combat force.
ASSISTANT DETACHMENT COMMANDER (180A): The assistant detachment commander is the ODA’s second in command. He is a warrant ofﬁ cer who has been selected from within the Special Forces community’s enlisted ranks.
OPERATIONS (TEAM) SERGEANT (18Z): The Special Forces operations sergeant, better known as the team sergeant, is usually a master sergeant and is responsible for all operational aspects of the ODA. The team sergeant is the ODA’s senior NCO and typically is the most experienced Green Beret on the detachment.
ASSISTANT OPERATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE SERGEANT (18F): The assistant operations and intelligence sergeant is usually a sergeant ﬁ rst class and is trained in advanced special operations techniques, including intelligence collection and processing and target analysis.
WEAPONS SERGEANT (18B) x 2: The weapons sergeant is an expert in the employment of U.S. and foreign weapons systems, including small arms, mortars, air defense systems and antitank weapons found throughout the world. The weapons sergeant also employs conventional and unconventional tactics and techniques as a tactical mission leader, and assists the detachment operations sergeant in the preparation of training and operational plans.
ENGINEER SERGEANT (18C): The engineer sergeant is highly skilled in the planning and constructing of buildings and bridges — as well as in their demolition. His knowledge of construction techniques includes expertise in creating buildings and ﬁ eld fortiﬁ cations, and the engineer sergeant is also skilled in all areas of demolitions, including land mine warfare and constructing and using improvised munitions. Engineer sergeants plan, supervise and perform all aspects of combat engineering and light construction.
MEDICAL SERGEANT (18D): The medical sergeant is well versed in many different areas of human and animal physiology. He is a specialist in trauma management, infectious diseases, cardiac life support and surgical procedures. He can also perform basic veterinarian medicine. Medical sergeants provide emergency, routine, and long-term medical care for their teams and associated allied members and host nation personnel. They train, advise, and direct the detachment’s routine, emergency and preventive medical care. They can also establish ﬁ eld medical facilities to support detachment operations.
COMMUNICATIONS SERGEANT (18E): The communications sergeant is the ODA’s link to the rest of the world. He is an expert in sending and receiving critical communications to the ODA’s command and control elements. Communications sergeants are familiar with cryptographic systems, burst outstation systems, antenna theory and radio wave propagation and common radios found throughout the Army. Communications sergeants install, operate and maintain FM, AM, HF, VHR, UHF and SHF communications in voice and burst radio networks. They advise the detachment commander on all communications matters.