Without such a measure troops will not get paid Feb. 1.
Federal law allows the VA to study the use of marijuana, but also makes research difficult.
Members of the military will report to work, although they won't get paid until Congress approves funding.
Last-minute negotiations crumbled as Senate Democrats blocked a four-week stopgap extension in a late-night vote.
A bitterly-divided Congress hurtled toward a government shutdown this weekend.
The House has passed a temporary government-wide funding bill that would avert a government shutdown.
Trump went to the Pentagon to send a message that funding the military is his top priority in any deal to avoid a shutdown.
President Donald Trump is meeting Defense Secretary Jim Mattis at the Pentagon on Thursday.
Dole accepted Congress' highest civilian honor for his WWII service and decades of work in the House and Senate.
Joint Chiefs Chairman Gen. Joseph Dunford says troops are frustrated by the budget impasse.