The Navy calls its job training A school. All Navy enlisted ratings (jobs) have an A school, which teaches you the fundamentals of your new Navy job.
Unlike the Air Force, you have no special restrictions on your off-duty freedoms during Navy A school (unless you've enlisted in one of a handful of special jobs, such as Navy SEAL).
If you're in a normal rating, attending Navy A school is very much like attending a regular college program, in that after class you can go play, assuming that you haven't been assigned to any extra duties (such as watch).
Of course, like other military branches, you'll also have mandatory PT (exercise) sessions at least three days per week.
After graduation from A school, a few new sailors attend C school, while most are assigned to their first ship or permanent duty station. C school is advanced training within your rating (job). For example, if you attended A school for general computer maintenance, it may be followed with C school to teach you how to work on a specific complicated computer system. Being chosen for C school means that you have proven that you're qualified to be trained in an advanced area of the job.
From Basic Training for Dummies, copyright © 2011 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Used by arrangement with John Wiley & Sons, Inc.