HONOLULU -- For the first time in more than three decades, an ominous warning siren blared across Hawaii this month -- an alarm that one day could mean a nuclear missile is about to hit.
The siren, a Cold War relic brought back after new threats from North Korea, is the centerpiece of a wide-ranging campaign to prepare for a nuclear strike. Over the past few months, state officials have aired TV ads warning Hawaiians to "get inside, stay inside" if an attack is imminent. They've also held meetings across the islands to educate residents on the danger.
Especially after North Korea's latest missile test, some experts believe California should follow Hawaii's example. But so far California's reaction has been starkly different.
"Hawaii feels like it's on the front lines because it's so close to North Korea, but these weapons have a pretty long reach," said Alex Wellerstein, a professor who studies nuclear weapons at New Jersey's Stevens Institute of Technology. In practical terms, he said, "Hawaii isn't a whole lot closer than San Francisco."
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Hawaii is about 4,600 miles from North Korea, compared to 5,450 miles for San Francisco.
Hawaii's alarm was tested Dec. 1 after the regular tsunami siren, and will be tested on the first business day of every month. It's a wailing caterwaul, impossible to ignore, and sounds different from the single-tone tsunami warning. For many locals and tourists, the foreboding sound evoked an earlier era when American schoolchildren were taught to hide under their desks in case the Soviet Union launched a nuclear strike.
If a North Korean missile were on its way toward Hawaii, the alarm would give residents about 13 minutes' notice, officials say. Hawaiians would also get emergency text message alerts on their smartphones -- and a warning would interrupt TV and radio broadcasts.
Emergency officials are telling residents to prepare for nuclear holocaust by stockpiling up to two weeks of food and medicine. If an attack is imminent, they should get inside, seal all windows, shelter in the most stable part of their home or office -- and wait for further information.
While analysts say North Korean missiles can probably reach most of the U.S., it's unclear whether the country can mount a nuclear warhead on a missile or aim well enough to hit a city.
Still, "we just couldn't ignore these constant threats and missile tests from North Korea," said Vern Miyagi, Hawaii's Emergency Management Agency administrator. He stressed that a nuclear strike from North Korea was unlikely, but he said state leaders felt a responsibility to address it.
Experts predict that if North Korea did target Hawaii, it would try to hit Pearl Harbor, the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet. A map of potential nuclear targets in a 2013 North Korean propaganda photo included Honolulu.
The idea of Pearl Harbor as a target brings back memories for Sterling Cale, who was a 20-year-old Navy medical specialist stationed there when Japanese forces attacked on Dec. 7, 1941. Now 96, he volunteers at the Pearl Harbor historic site every week, wearing a colorful Hawaiian shirt and pointed Navy cap as he talks to visitors about his experience.
"We're much more prepared now than we were in World War II," Cale said. "I'm not worried -- our people are ready for anything that might happen."
Some Hawaiians, however, fear that the nuclear threat will scare vacationers away from the state's beaches.
Makani Christensen, a tour guide in Honolulu, thought regular sirens could hurt his business. State officials should "think about the big picture and not jump into this hysteria unless (a missile) is absolutely coming," he said.
This article is written by By Casey Tolan from Mercury News and was legally licensed via the Tribune Content Agency through the NewsCred publisher network. Please direct all licensing questions to firstname.lastname@example.org.