Prosecutors say he lied on several official forms to gain supplemental pay from the federal government.
U.S. Attorney Kenneth A. Polite's office released a copy of the indictment on Monday.
Sixty-three-year-old Randy M. Kiley Sr., of Slidell, was formally charged Thursday with two counts of wire fraud and two counts of making false statements.
Kiley served as an Active Guard Reserve soldier in the Louisiana National Guard for 35 years. He retired in July 2014 as a Sergeant Major, the second-highest rank achievable by a non-commissioned officer.
Kiley is accused of lying about his marital status to receive increased Basic Allowance for Housing and Family Separation Allowance pay.