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Introduction to Security Clearances

Servicemember using computer.

What is a security clearance?
The Federal Government gives selected personnel or companies a security clearance as a means of determining their eligibility for access to classified information or facilities. There are three levels of personnel clearance: Confidential, Secret, and Top Secret.

What Agency Processes Clearances?
The Department of Defense (DoD) is responsible for managing security clearances. The defense activity known as Defense Industrial Security Clearance Office (DISCO) is part of the Defense Security Service (DSS), an agency of the. DISCO processes and adjudicates Personnel Clearances.

How long does a civilian contractor’s personnel clearance remain in effect?
Normally your clearance remains in effect as long as you remain employed by a cleared contractor and, like in the military, as long as you are expected to require access to classified information as part of your job function. Also like the military civilians are required to comply with periodic reinvestigation requirements.

What do active, current and expired statuses mean?
Personnel Security Investigation (PSI) is what security clearances are based on; they are either “current” or “expired.” A PSI is current as long as it is not more than 15 years old for a Confidential, 10 years old for a Secret, or five years old for a Top Secret clearance. If the PSI has expired or there has been a break-in-service of two years or more, a person must be nominated for a new clearance and must complete a new application in the same manner as a person who never had a clearance. That is why it is important to a potential employer that you keep your PSI up to date or renew within two years.

Is it possible to reinstate a clearance after it has been terminated?
Yes. If you had a clearance and the investigation is still current, the clearance can be reinstated by the agency that originally granted the clearance or it can be accepted and granted by a different agency or company. Of course this reinstatement must occur with two years. As a rule this only requires the submitting a new application.

If my clearance lapses how long does it take to process a security clearance?
The average end-to-end processing time for all types of clearances is more than 200 days.

Will my clearance process be faster because I had a clearance three years ago?
The answer is no if you previously held a Secret or Confidential clearance and maybe if your previous level was Top Secret was completed less than five years ago. If so there is a possibility that a very small portion of the new investigation will not have to be repeated, which may speed up the process a little.

What can I do if my a clearance is denied or revoked?
You may appeal an adverse decision by filing a notice of appeal. You must then submit a written appeal brief. The appeal brief is reviewed by the Appeal Board at Defense Office of Hearings and Appeals (DOHA). An appeal can only be based on an error made by the Administrative Judge (AJ).

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