HAUPPAUGE, N.Y. -- During the seven months that he was stationed in Iraq, Joe Janssen served as an assaultman, a job that involved manning the turret gun in a Humvee and using shoulder-fired rockets and other explosives to support his fellow Marines.
Those skills were invaluable in war. But they are of little use now that he is back home in this Long Island hamlet. He has applied for job after job since leaving active duty well over a year ago, but his efforts have proved futile.
The Marine reservist used his veterans benefits to finish his bachelor's degree in criminal justice. Now, he is scouring for a job in law enforcement while he waits for his name to rise to the top of the New York state police hiring list -- which is unlikely to be anytime soon, given the state's severe budget problems.
Some experts say the grim employment landscape confronting veterans challenges the veracity of one of the central recruiting promises of the nation's all-volunteer force: that serving in the military will make them more marketable in civilian life.
The unemployment rate for Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans was 10 percent in November, compared with 9.1 percent for non-veterans, according to the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unemployment rates for combat veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have been higher than the overall rate since at least 2005, according to the bureau.
Top military officials stand by their promise, even as they express concern about the unemployment rate of veterans. They emphasize that veterans are driven by patriotism and have access to an array of programs to help them find work, including preferences for government jobs, guaranteed interviews with large employers, and tuition reimbursement and stipends for college.
"I continue to be very worried about the unemployment rate among our vets. They and their families have sacrificed an awful lot, and all they want in return is a chance to get back to their lives and to their dreams," said Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The experiences of four Iraq veterans, all attached to the same Marine reserve unit in New York, are emblematic: One is gainfully employed; he said he thinks he was hired because he is a veteran. Another has managed to get part-time work after a long and difficult search. A third is in school, with the help of government veterans benefits. And Janssen continues to look for work, a process that has nourished a desire to return to active duty.
"I'm hoping to get deployed," Janssen said. "Besides wanting to go to Afghanistan, I could use the money."
Calvin Artis, 22, joined the Marine Corps in March 2006, when he was 17. He said he was driven by a desire to serve his country and expand his career options.
"It was either that or get a job at McDonald's or Home Depot, or go back to live with my mom," said Artis, who before enlisting earned his general equivalency diploma in the National Guards' Youth Challenge Program, which works with high-risk youths in a quasi- military structure. But Artis says his civilian job options are little improved.
He has twice taken the New York City police exam, but he remains far down the hiring list. Meanwhile, he has applied for dozens of other jobs, at Toys 'R' Us, Radio Shack, Walmart, McDonald's and several security firms -- all carefully cataloged on a spreadsheet he keeps on his laptop -- but few employers responded with as much as a phone call.
"Everybody says, 'We support the troops,' " Artis said. "But a lot of people turn away when it is time to return the favor."
Artis said he is considering going to school and plans to return to active duty if the economy does not improve. "Knowing what I know now, I would have stayed in," he said. "At least there are job security and benefits when you are in."
Analysts offer several reasons why newly returned combat troops often struggle to find work. For one, the types of skills that troops hone during war -- teamwork, mission focus, the ability to operate under extreme pressure -- are often misunderstood or undervalued by employers.
Some analysts say that stigma is one reason that veterans often earn less than comparable workers -- a gap that lingers long after they leave active duty.
In recent years, the federal government has bolstered aid for veterans seeking to further their education. The post-Sept. 11, 2001, GI Bill provides combat veterans more assistance with college tuition, as well as stipends for books and living expenses.
Meanwhile, the Defense, Veterans Affairs and Labor departments offer skills training, assessment and other services to help veterans get jobs. Last year, President Obama signed an executive order establishing offices in federal agencies responsible for identifying job opportunities for veterans.
Some analysts say the educational and other benefits available to veterans -- including immediate unemployment insurance -- are also likely contributors to their high joblessness rates.
"It could be they are going to college. And it could be that they are accessing certain benefits that are available to them," said Beth Asch, a senior economist at the Rand Corp. "They could be more likely to go to college now because they have educational benefits that other people don't."
To be sure, some veterans are able to land good jobs on returning home. John Louis, 24, who served at Iraq's Camp Korean Village with Janssen, works as an electrician's apprentice, helping to wire new offices in a high-rise on Manhattan's East Side. He makes about $20 an hour, and there is plenty of overtime.
"I have a feeling that the only reason I got this job is because I had the Marine Corps on my resume," he said.
David Fuertes, 23, also feels like he is on track. A TOW missile gunner in Iraq, he drives a tricked-out red sports car and attends St. John's University. He also is a member of the New York City Police Department Cadets Corps, which is an apprenticeship program. Once Fuertes completes his degree, he plans to join the police force and, eventually, the Drug Enforcement Administration.
"My Marine experience, I wouldn't trade it for anything," Fuertes said. "The economy sucks. My friends who have no high school diploma or GED, they're stuck doing odd jobs or nothing. I look at my friends, not to brag, but I am the most successful. Now, some of them are asking me about joining."