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Boxer Rebellion - Background and Links

Boxer Rebellion: The Righteous Fist

At the close of the 19th century, the United States cooperated with Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Germany, Austria, and Japan in order to defeat the I Ho Ch'uan, a Chinese secret society that had besieged Westerners and Chinese Christians in Beijing.
The I Ho Ch'uan, (righteous, harmonious fists), also known as the Boxers, gained power in China due to increasing resentment against the influence of Western powers, which had increased as a result of China's losses in the Opium Wars and the first Sino-Japanese War.

The Boxers began to draw attention through their attacks on foreigners, particularly Christian missionaries. While the Chinese Royalty officially denounced them, the Dowager Empress Tz'u Hsi secretly supported their activities.

The attacks came to a head in 1900 with the siege of Peking (now called Beijing) by 140,000 Boxers that drew the attention of the US and other powers that wanted to protect their interests in China. An international relief force of 19,000 was then organized, which included 2,500 U.S. sailors and Marines.

After the relief forces took the city, China was forced to sign a settlement that required it to pay reparations to the participating nations for the next 40 years. The US attempted to relieve the payments by using them to finance scholarships for Chinese students, and by 1924, the Senate remitted all further payments.

Related Links
Boxer Uprising @ - Delivers a summary of the events along with a video for sale.

Boxer Rebellion of 1900 - Find a detailed overview of the uprising with photos and maps.

Age of Imperialism - Explains the U.S. involvement with the uprising in China.

Ch'ing China - Learn about the attacks on foreigners in China that forced the U.S. and several other nations to intercede.

U.S. Marines in the Boxer Rebellion - Focuses on the role of American Marines during the 1900 crisis in China.

Marine Corps Research Center - Locate photos and a video clip of the China Relief Force.

Boxer Uprising 1900 - Delivers an analysis of the causes and effects of the Boxer Uprising in China.

American Military History - Read about the China Relief Expedition and the incident where the 14th Infantry scaled the Tartar Wall.

The Barony of War - Offers the order of battle for the participating countries and a rundown of events during the conflict.
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